WFUMB Position Paper. Incidental findings, how to manage: adrenal incidentaloma (AI)
Dietrich Frank Christoph F1,2, Jean Michel Correas3, Yi Dong1,4, Christian Nolsoe5, Sue Westerway6, Christian Jenssen7
1Department of Internal Medicine 2, Caritas Krankenhaus, Bad Mergentheim, Germany, Bad Mergentheim, Germany
2Sino-German Research Center of Ultrasound in Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, China, Zhengzhou, China
3Service de Radiologie Adultes, Hôpital Necker, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France, Paris, France
4Department of Ultrasound, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, 200032 Shanghai, China, Shanghai, China
5Copenhagen Academy for Medical Education and Simulation (CAMES), Ultrasound Section, Department of Gastroenterology, Division of Surgery, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark
6Ultrasound Department, Charles Sturt University, Australia, New South Wales, Australia., New South Wales, Australia
7Department of Internal Medicine, Krankenhaus Märkisch Oderland, Strausberg/Wriezen and Brandenburg Institute for Clinical Ultrasound, Neuruppin, Germany, Strausberg, Germany
Corresponding Author: Dietrich Frank Christoph F ,Tel: 49 (0)7931 – 58 – 22, Fax: 49 (0)7931 – 58 – 22, Email:
Received: May 24, 2019;  Accepted: July 9, 2019.  Published online: July 9, 2019.
Focal lesions of the adrenal glands are incidentally detected in approximately 5% of cases by modern imaging techniques. Less than 5% of these adrenal incidentalomas are malignant and approximately 10% have endocrine activity. Reliable differentiation of malignant versus benign and hormonal active versus non-functional adrenal incidentalomas significantly influences therapeutic management and outcome of affected individuals. Therefore, each adrenal incidentaloma should undergo a standardized diagnostic work-up to exclude malignancy and endocrine activity. This position statement of the World Federation of Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (WFUMB) summarizes the available evidence on management of adrenal incidentaloma and describes efficient management strategies with particular reference to the role of ultrasound techniques.
Keywords: Adrenal incidentaloma; Diagnostic; Imaging; Position paper; World Federation of Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology
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